References to scientific journal articles are provided here for further reading and for educational purposes.


GLPS has accumulated literature regarding the health hazards of 2,4-D and non-target organisms, as well as literature regarding non-chemical control of Eurasian watermilfoil. The literature cited here is the most direct and accessible.

2,4-D Residues are Harmful to Humans

Roberts, J. R., Karr, C. J., Paulson, J. A., Brock-Utne, A. C., Brumberg, H. L., Campbell, C. C., … Wright, R. O. (2012). Pesticide Exposure in Children. Pediatrics, 130(6), e1757–e1763. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-2757

Cox, C. (2005). 24D Factsheet. Journal of Pesticide Reform, 25(4). Retrieved from

2,4-D is Harmful to Non-target Organisms

Cooke, G. D. (2005). Restoration And Management Of Lakes And Reservoirs. CRC Press.

Nichols, S. A. (1991). The interaction between biology and the management of aquatic macrophytes. Aquatic Botany, 41(1–3), 225–252. doi:10.1016/0304-3770(91)90045-7

Natural Weed Control Using Weevils

Creed, R. P., & Sheldon, S. P. (1995). Weevils and Watermilfoil: Did a North American Herbivore Cause the Decline of an Exotic Plant? Ecological Applications, 5(4), 1113. doi:10.2307/2269358

Sheldon, S. P., & Creed, R. P. (1995). Use of a Native Insect as a Biological Control for an Introduced Weed. Ecological Applications, 5(4), 1122. doi:10.2307/2269359


Polly Higgins

Message to Women: Love for the Earth:

TEDx Talk:


University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute

"We are Entering an Era of Crisis in Terms of Climate Change and Water Resource Management":

Dr. Pavan Sukhdev

on The Invisible Economy:


Water Scarcity: Is the Blue Planet Running Dry?

Katharine Jefferts Schori

Ph.D., Oceanographer, Presiding Bishop of Episcopal Church

Episcopal Bishop Outlines Religious Reasons to Protect Environment: